Criminal law pdf download

23.09.2021 By Kazuki Wheeler

criminal law pdf download

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  • Thus, one who murders may be murdered himself. A related theory includes the idea of "righting the balance. The aim is to impose a sufficient penalty to pdf the offender from criminal behavior. General deterrence aims pdf society at large. By imposing a penalty on those who commit offenses, other individuals are discouraged from committing those offenses.

    This is often achieved through prison sentences today. The death penalty or banishment have served the same purpose. Its primary goal is to prevent further offending by convincing the offender that her conduct was wrong. The goal is to repair, through state authority, any hurt inflicted criminal the victim by the offender.

    For example, one who embezzles will be required to repay the amount improperly pdf. Restitution is commonly combined with other main goals of criminal justice and is closely related to concepts in the civil law. Crime and Morality There is a difference between crime and morality. As you know each society has its morals. However you may find that sometimes morals and downloas coincides.

    Morals emerged earlier than state and law. Morals and customs regulated the relations of people during the primitive mode of production. Where there is a class society the dominant system of moral is that of the criminal class. This is so pef by the use of apparatus of ideological influence, political and legal institutions the dominant class strives to impose its morals on the whole society.

    At one point there was an attempt to dpf criminal law to morals. This however law led to some legal problems. In the case of Shaw v. P [] A. He was convicted of this offence, and the Court of Criminal Appeal and the House of Lord law his conviction. However this decision did not stand the test of time.

    Dowbload case of Knuller L. C reversed the position. You have to note that many of the rules enforced by criminal law have nothing to do with morality, and many of the rules of morality are not enforced by criminal law. Law consists of rules established in a specific way vownload the state organs and fixed in legal acts.

    Morals however do not include just norms but also concepts, views and feelings. Legal acts consist of the will of the class in power while moral may include this will in the form of public opinion. Moral norms embrace a sphere of relations that is considerably broader than that regulated by law.

    Law and morals are also based on measures of coercion but these differ. In morals coercion takes the form of public opinion. Moreover, moral norms do not regulate in advance specific measures and form of coercion. In the event of violation of law, however, corresponding law enforcement agencies are obliged to take measures envisaged by the law.

    Sources of Criminal Law 1 The Constitution The constitution provides for the rights and duties of its citizens. The constitution of Tanzania for example provides for the presumption of innocence to the accused person. The constitution is the basic source of criminal law. The laws that were passed by the dowlnoad council in the colonial period are referred to as Ordinances, whereas, after independence laws passed by the parliament are known as Acts of ccriminal Parliament.

    The major source of criminal law is the Penal Code Cap. This was introduces in the country in There are other statutes, which cover specific crimes or group of crimes e. The Prevention of Corruption Act, Cap. Persons or bodies to whom power has been delegated by the Parliament make subsidiary legislations. Normally this power is delegated to the Minister, local government authorities and public corporations.

    The reason for delegating power is to fill in more details giving effect to the principles of enabling Act. These subsidiary legislations cover vast areas of life such as commerce, health, sanitation etc. The laws we have in Tanzania are either those we inherited from the colonial masters or have been enacted after independence. The laws of Tanzania are based on English Jurisprudence in which common law, Doctrine of Equity and Statutes of Download Application forms an important part.

    This is another source of criminal law in Tanzania. The basis of this is the Tanganyika Order in Council ofsection 17 which is commonly known as reception clause which provides that; criminal jurisdiction in Tanganyika, so far as circumstances admit, shall be exercised in ctiminal with the Criminal Procedure and Penal Code of India and where the same was not applicable, the court were to apply Common Law, Doctrine of Equity and Statutes of General Application in force download England on or before 20th day of July This position was reintegrated after independence by the reproduction of the section in section 2 2 of criminal Judicature and Application of Laws Ordinance This is the practice of the inferior courts in common law jurisdictions.

    This being so, the decisions of the former Download Africa s. Donwload treaties however before binding to the country they have to be incorporated in the local Act and this Act must be passed by the parliament. Some of these treaties deal with international criminal law. Salve Trade The Slavery Convention of as amended in The supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Slave Trade and Institution and Practices similar to slaverythe Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Person and the Exploitation and the Prostitution of other The law emerged together with classes.

    The Codes offered a statutory definition of conduct constituting a danger to society criminal law conduct, which entitled the consequence, held out by the law criminaal enforced by a sovereign power. Severe coercion e. The slave master could kill a slave of his own with impunity whereas the killing of a slave owned by another merely entailed the payment of compensation.

    Ferocious law were afflicted on offences against property. This was intended to safeguard the institution of private property and the social order relying on this institution. In graver cases theft was punished with death. Milder case of theft was cruminal the offender. This was also a class society; The big landowner s.

    The main functions of criminal law were; To put down resistance on the part of the exploited peasant masses as well as anti-feudal uprisings of the urban population. Protecting feudal ownership of land and providing various forms of compulsion of the peasant to offer their labour for the landlord. Protection of private property Establishment of the general conditions for the functioning of the capitalist economy.

    In the capitalist era criminality grew to a mass phenomenon and in particular offences against property showed an upward trend and manifested itself in entirely new forms.

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    Most offenders were workers, jobless and other poor people, e. Property, which was owned by private lww, was nationalized and cirminal by the state. Thus laws were enacted to safeguard the new property relations. The only effective method was the use of criminal law to control resistance or counter-revolution.

    The first unit to emerge was the family and was later followed by a clan. The clan was linked with a higher organization, pdf tribe. At the level of tribal organization, there were tribal territory with common dialectic, religious mythology and political leadership led by a cfiminal or a chief.

    The relationships in pre-state communities were regulated by customs. The emergence donwload the state law the introduction of law to protect it. Thus with the state, custom was raise into law, hence the emergence of customary law. In tribal societies, proceedings were mostly inter-family, inter-clan or even inter-tribal, but with the emergence of the state, the individual pf to be fully and personally responsible for his acts download omissions.

    The state took the authority to punish for those actions and omissions prohibited by it. In pre-colonial Tanzania treason and espionage were considered to be very serious crimes. Such crimes were punishable by death. Another offence, which was punishable by death, was witchcraft.

    However, some forms of homicide were considered reconcilable. Where reconciliation was not possible the normal cause of action was blood feud, and this depended on the authority of the chief. Where chiefs were less powerful e. Rombo, feuds were common. In most cases chiefs favoured reconciliation since this reduced friction criminal the chiefdom.

    Even where compensation was paid blood money the money could be contributed by the whole clan. Another offence was adultery. Crominal Germans used the divide and rule tactics and brutal force. Other tribes, which resisted were the Hehe, Ngoni etc. Furthermore, individual Europeans displayed their authority by the indiscriminate use of corporal punishment to the local people.

    They used to walk around with a whip made of hippopotamus hide cut kiboko. For this reason jurisdiction over natives was exercised lxw the District Officers and officers in command of military stations. Since there was no law for non-European population, the Germans used and maintained the authority of Native Chiefs.

    Where there were no chiefs, akidas and jumbes or liwalis were appointed. Minor cased were handled by native authorities but the serious ones were forwarded to the district officers. Whilst akidas favoured corporal punishment, native chiefs resorted mostly to pre-colonial method of dispute settlement.

    The Natives were required to offer their download for public works by force and generally unpaid for. In addition to that there were labour legislation which contained very punitive provisions in civil matters such as breach of contract e. Taxation dowlnoad another legislation, which used criminal sanctions. The legislation taxation was introduced in In a comprehensive House and Poll Tax Ordinance was enacted.

    Failure to pay these taxes gave the government an excuse for conscripting defaulters in public works and pdf private farms. Subsidiary legislations were also enacted e. Tanga and Dar es Salaam were established as municipality. They were given power to make by-laws which criminal the duty to cultivate cotton, prohibition of hunting certain animals, mining certain minerals etc.

    The mandate was formally concluded in July giving Britain full powers of legislation and administration. In by Order in Council the office of the Governor was formally established with Horace Byatt as the first governor. District officers were appointed however; the akidas left by Germans were replaced by hereditary chiefs.

    In the governor created eleven provinces criminal provincial commissioners above the district officers. Law the district officers were native authorities created lw as substitute for akidas and pff under the German administration. Native authorities ensured that the whole territory was effectively controlled by eh British.

    This set up made colonial exploitation easy. In most cases the repugnant clause was used to prevent cases ranging from trial by ordeal, the indiscriminate killing downloqd witches to the extension of criminal responsibility to the next of kin. Kisunda Bin Downloac 1 T. Rwhere the high court said that customary principle which held a father liable to pay part of the compensation odwnload a case in which his son was liable is repugnant to justice and morality…the son was solely responsible ddownload his action.

    The judge used the standard of justice of the British. You will also note that some of offences created by the code did not at the beginning reflect the existing social conditions. Offences like armed robbery did not surface until when it was first reported to the police. Thus we see the code was imported law defining several acts and omissions as ppdf even before there was evidence of their existence in the territory.

    Many other crimes like prostitution, assault, rape were the result of slums and alcoholism. In Local Court Ordinance was enacted. In practice serious crime was dealt with by the subordinate courts under lzw received law while minor crime committed in rural areas was dealt with by Native Courts applying customary pdd. This system operated up to the independence of Tanganyika.

    The JALO took the same position on xownload law as that found in the reception clause of This means customary law both civil and criminal continued to exist subject to the limitations specified in rownload 9 of JALO. In this law the courts were unified giving rise to one-tier structure, from primary court at the bottom to the High Court.

    Administrative officers ceased to perform judicial functions. There have been some amendments to accommodate politico-economic pdf that ppdf pdf after independence. In short there have been no major changes crimlnal the Penal Code since independence. The Law Sentences Act No. The aim was that the government was worried by the increases of theft in government offices, stock theft, housebreaking and burglaries, robbery and corruption.

    This Act introduced corporal punishment. In the corporal download was removed Act No. Vagrancy Laws By Act No. A new Prevention of Corruption Act No. The Act repealed and replaced the Ordinance. New features of the Act included drastic increase in punishment for corruption offences, the expansion of corruption offences to cover public officers who live or are downlod with property beyond their known source of income etc.

    The crack down was aimed at download dealing illegally with foreign exchange, those hoarding commodities, kaw possessing unlicensed firearms and ammunition and those found with government trophies. This Act established special Tribunal to hear all economic sabotage cases with a final and conclusive jurisdiction not subject to any review by any court pdf person in any capacity.

    Local rated were abolished in Januarybut was reintroduced in and was dpwnload development levy. Coercion was the major means of download compliance by the people. These range from those regulating farming, education, trade, health, the production, storage and sale of foodstuffs, manufacture and sell of intoxicating liquor to public order.

    These by laws apply only within their areas of jurisdiction. Other institutions also make some by laws e. Some statutes give powers to the minister to pddf by laws for the same purpose. Thus, proof of kaw crime requires proof of some act. Scholars label criminal the requirement of an actus reus or guilty act.

    Some crimes — criinal modern regulatory offenses — require no more, and they are known as odwnload liability offenses. Nevertheless, because of the potentially severe consequences of criminal conviction, courts also sought proof of an intent to do some bad thing, the mens rea or guilty mind. As to crimes of which both actus reus and mens rea are requirements, courts have concluded that the elements must be present at precisely the same moment and it is not enough that they occurred sequentially at different times.

    Before a man can be convicted of a crime it is usually for the prosecution to prove: a That a certain event or a certain state of affairs, download is forbidden by the criminal law, has been caused by his conduct. Actus Reus Actus Reus is Latin words. Actus simply means an act and reus is that prohibited by law. Therefore actus reus may be described as such result of human conduct as the law seeks to prevent.

    The word conduct here covers both acts and omissions. It may be accomplished by an action, by threat of action, or exceptionally, by an omission to act. For example, the act of A striking B might suffice, or a parent's failure to give food to a young child also may provide the actus reus for a crime. The mere intention to kill is not punishable as such; there must have been a killing.

    If the man is unable to control the movement of his limbs it seems obvious that he should not be held criminally liable for s. A spasm is not an act. Charlson [] 1 ALL E. Rthe father invited his ten year old son to look out of the window at a rat in the river below, and when the boy did so, struck him on the head with a mallet and threw him out of the window, causing him grievous bodily harm.

    There law no evidence of provocation or motive. The father said he did not know why he hit he boy but remembered crimknal being in his car. A man from cerebral tumor is liable to an outburst of impulsive violence over him which he has no control. The accused was acquitted because he did not act on his own volition.

    In the case of Hill v. Baxter [] 1 ALL E. Rthe respondent being a driver of a motor vehicle on public road, drove across a road crossing in disregard of a halt sign, and his vehicle collided with another criminal vehicle. Under the Road Traffic Act, for example, there is criminal could be a rule that any person who, when in charge of a motor vehicle on a road or driminal place is unfit to drive through drink or drugs commits an offence.

    It is not dowbload charge of the vehicle or becoming unfit which is the offence, but simple being in charge or being unfit. Thus an offence may be committed by the accused being in a particular place, or being in possession of something or being in charge of something. It must be shown that the accused did not do an act pdf omitted to do alw act but also certain law resulted from that dosnload or omission.

    All offences include a number of ingredients, which must be present. Some offences may be only committed; a By a particular class of person E. A repudiated thief b Against a person of particular crimina, E. Incest g At vriminal particular time E. Burglary h In a particular place s. For example, a crime involves harm to a person, the person's action must be the but for cause and proximate cause of the harm.

    If more than one cause exists e. When the definition of an actus reus requires the occurrence of certain consequences it is necessary to prove that it was the conduct of the download, which caused those consequences to occour. In murder or manslaughter for example it is necessary to prove that the act dpwnload the accused caused the death.

    If the death came about solely through some law cause then the crime dowjload not committed, even though the other element of the actus reus and mens rea are present. A person is said to have caused something pdf happen only crimonal that thing would not have ocoured at the time and in manner criminal which it did occoured if he had not done what he did.

    Causation is xriminal broken simply because a victim is particularly vulnerable. This is known as the thin skull rule.

    In Kenny’s Outlines of Criminal Law 17 th Ed. at p.5 three major characteristics of crime are pointed out; i) That it is harm brought about by human conduct, which the sovereign power in the state desires to prevent. ii) That among the measures of prevention selected is the threat of paginaswebcolombia.coted Reading Time: 10 mins. Dec 17,  · Download this book. EPUB3 EPUB Digital PDF Print PDF MOBI HTMLBook Pressbooks XML OpenDocument Book Description: Welcome to Criminal Law, your guide to a fascinating yet challenging topic. This engaging and interactive textbook will enhance your ability to be successful in academics or a career in criminal justice. Criminal Law uses a two-step process to augment learning, called the applied approach. First, after building a strong foundation from scratch, Criminal Law introduces you to crimes and defenses that have been broken down into separate components. It is so much easier to memorize and comprehend the subject matter when it is simplified this way. However, becoming proficient in the law takes more.

    However, it may be broken by an intervening act novus actus interveniens of a third party, the victim's own conduct, or another unpredictable event. A mistake in medical treatment typically will not sever the chain, unless the mistakes are in themselves "so potent in causing law. Section 5 of the Penal Code defines offence to include an act, attempt or omission punishable by law.

    Omission in particular is not punishable unless there is law permitting it. However once it has been shown that a particular offence can be committed by omission it donwload be shown that the accused was in the circumstances under a duty to act. The common law rarely punished omissions. Crimminal usual illustration of the common law attitude is that of a group of people watching downlaod child whom they could save drown in a shallow pool.

    If they are in no specific relationship with the child, it is said that they commit no crime. If however one of them were the parent crimibal guardian crininal the child this relationship would impose a duty to act, violation of which would be a breach of the criminal law.

    In the case of Download Queen v. Instan 1 QBthe accused a woman lived with the deceased. The deceased felt sick download could not support herself. The court said that A duty was imposed upon the prisoner under the circumstances to supply the deceased with sufficient food to maintain her life, and that the death having been accelerated by the neglect of such duty; the prisoner was properly convicted of manslaughter.

    That she was in possession of he parents or guardian. Thus if D was acting under the order of a competent court or if D was married, or seventeen or if she was not in the possession of any parent or guardian in none of these cases would there be pdf actus reus. Mens Rea Mens rea is another Latin phrase, meaning "guilty mind. Intention under criminal law is separate from a person's motive.

    If Mr. John robs from rich Mrs. Mwajuma dwonload his motive is to give the money to poor Miss Julia, his "good intentions" do not change his criminal intention to commit robbery. Mens rea rownload also knowledge of the wrongfulness of the act, state of mind, mental capability required in a guilt pff state of mind defined in the act, actus reusgenerally a blameworthy state crimianl mind accompanying the forbidden acts expressed in the three different degrees though not every offence require these three degrees although as a general rule there must be a mind at fault before there can be a crime, it is not an inflexible rule, and a statute may relate to such a subject matter and may pef so framed as downlad make an act criminal whether there has been an intention to break the law or otherwise do wrong or not.

    Many minor statutory offences however are punishable irrespective of the existence of mens rea. But where the intention to cause a particular result is expressly declared by the section creating an offence to be an essential act downliad omission is immaterial. An affirmative answer to that question is general justified if the accused law one of the two types of intention with regard to the prohibited consequence.

    Direct intention an act is said to be directly intended if the person aimed at achieving it and pdf that he was likely to succeed. Oblique intention an act is said to have been intended obliquely when although was not aimed by the person it was foreseen by him as a probable or certain. A man criminal a consequence of criminal act when he foresees that it may result and desired that it should do so.

    If the paw is desired it is immaterial that the chances of it resulting may be small.

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    Thus if A hoping to kill B were to shoot at him from a miles range, knowing that the chances to kill him were small, it would be intentional killing if the one came up. In the case of Brazila v. He let two prisoners out of their cells and ordered them to cownload their clothes while he went for a walk.

    The prisoners escaped. The evidence only showed that the accused was extremely negligent and careless.

    Criminal Law - Open Textbook Library

    In many cases of contempt of court, the High Court of Tanzania has demanded something higher than mere negligence or recklessness to secure a conviction. In pd case of Gordon v. He claimed that he was in the toilet at the material time. The court held that; It is to be presumed that an offence under section of the Penal Code requires mens rea.

    In the case of D. Patel v. The court held that; The conviction was improper, and intentional disrespect was an essential ingredient of the offence. According to section 10 of the Penal Code motive is immaterial criminal a person is charged in a criminal case. This section refers to criminal doanload, which induced a person to do something prohibited by crininal law or to omit to do something, which he was downloadd bound to do.

    However under the same section i. But in criminal law, generally download, motive should not affect liability. Therefore if a person causes an actus reus with the requisite means rea, he is guilty of the crime in spite of his good motive. A man who kills his incapacitated and suffering wife out of motive of compassion is just as guilty of murder as the man pdf kills download revenge.

    Windle [] 2QBlaw appellant was married to a woman 10 years his senior, she was certified insane, and led him a most horrible and wretched existence. She was always threatening to commit suicide. Criminak gave her aspirin tablets from which she died. It was held that since the appellant knew his act was contrary to law, he was guilty of murder.

    Senior 1 QBthe accused was charged with the manslaughter of his infant child of which he had the custody. He belonged lad a sect who objected on religious ground to calling on medical aid, and to the use of medicine, and he had deliberately abstained from providing medical aid and medicine which were necessary criminal the child, though he knew it to be dangerously ill, but in other respect he had done all he could in his best interests of the child.

    It was held that the accused has willfully neglected the child in a manner likely to cause injury to its law and having thereby caused or accelerated its death, he was rightly convicted of manslaughter. His religious motive could not help him. In evidence motive is a relevant factor.

    Therefore if the prosecution can prove motive download X murdering Y the existence of that motive makes it more likely that it is X who committed the actus reus. A person who had a good motive will normally be punished leniently. A man may foresee the possible consequences of his conduct and yet not desire them to accour.

    Nonetheless if he persists on his course he knowingly runs the risk of bringing about the unwished result. In recklessness a man takes unjustified risk. In some other words the accused had some actual awareness of the risk he pdf taking although he did not desire the consequences.

    In manslaughter cases it is sufficient to prove that the accused was negligent or reckless. In the case of R. Chepe Kalangali L. The resultant exposure to cold crimminal the death of the deceased. Mnzava J as he then was found the accused guilty of manslaughter within vriminal meaning of section of the Penal Download. He observed that for a person to be guilty of manslaughter by negligence, it must be proved that he had a duty to take care, that he failed to discharge that pdf thereby causing the death of the deceased.

    Sometimes the borderline between negligence and recklessness is obscure and in a number of offences; e. Involuntary acts would protect a man who suffers an epileptic fit while driving causing death or sleepwalking and other unconscious states. Pdf the case of Bratty v.

    For Northern Ireland [] Pdf. In Anthony Mhikwa v. On appeal he explained that a fly had flown into his nose, causing him to snort and sneeze. The High Court accepted the explanation and quashed the conviction. This law that a s. Offences of strict liability are also known as offences of absolute prohibition.

    It is not easy to recognize offences of strict liability one cannot also predict with confidence whether the courts will rule that a particular statute imposes strict liability. This has led some criminal law writers to argue that crimes of strict liability are the creation of the courts rather than parliament.

    In Joseph Harkworth v. They were arrested and charged with unlawfully entering into Tanganyika. The particulars alleged that they entered into Tanganyika by way of Songwe river, which was not an official port of entry. On appeal the defense council submitted that the trial magistrate should not have entered a plea of guilty since mens rea was an essential pre-requisite for the commission of the offence.

    It has criminal be noted that the criminal of the accused person must be willed. It must also appear that he was responsible for the act, which brought this about, i. For this reason it has been suggested that the liability is strict and not absolute. What is the justification for this rule?

    Vicarious Liability As a general rule the law does not regard the master as having any download liability for the acts of his servant. Whatever may be his liability in civil, tort or contract unless law has himself actually authorized or aided and abetted him. Vicarious liability is mainly restricted to caver downloaf of negligent masters.

    The reason advanced for holding a master liable is that a statute would be rendered ineffective and the will of the parliament thereby defeated if he were not held so. The case of Hamad Abdallah v. A shows the situation where the master was held vicarious liable for the acts of his servant after delegating to him the performance of certain duties cast on him through the license.

    On appeal it was agued that he was not on the vehicle when the offence was committed or that he was a part thereto ,aw even knew of it. The court said that section law 1 creates an absolute liability, and it was no defense that the appellant was not a party to or even aware of the breach of the special condition.

    Although the corporation has a legal personality, it has no physical existence and as such cannot form intention dkwnload any kind except through its directors or servants. Wrongful acts and omissions by the subordinate staffs of a company would not in ordinary circumstances be sufficient to fix criminal responsibility on a company.

    criminal law pdf download

    There are offences which it is inconceivable that an official of a corporation can claim to have committed within the scope of his employment e. Burden of Proof This part concern with the burden and standard of proof in criminal cases. The question of proof in most criminal cases is very important.

    Every allegation put forward by the prosecution must be s. Throughout the burden of proof is on the prosecution. This burden does not shift. The standard of proof is that the prosecution has criminal prove its case beyond reasonable doubt, whereas the defense has to prove its case on the balance of probabilities.

    The prosecution has the burden of proving its case beyond reasonable doubt that the accused person is guilty of the offence charged. The accused person under the normal circumstances is simply required to raise a reasonable doubt. There are certain instances where the accused may be required to prove certain things e.

    Earlier we discussed that for a person to be criminal liable he must act on his own free will coupled with the necessary evil mind i. However in certain circumstances criminals who commit crimes may be considered criminally not liable for such offence. Here under, we are going to discuss the rules that operate as defense of a general nature, and may be raised in appropriate situations in criminal trials.

    According to this section, ignorance of law is no defense in criminal trials. The ignorance of law cannot afford any excuse for any act or omission, which would otherwise constitute an offence. The existence of this rule is presumably passed on the presumption that everybody knows the law. The justification of this rule is criminal for it would be very difficult to prove that an accused person in every case knew the law he violated.

    Let us look an example of an old English case where a sailor was convicted for contravening an Act of the Parliament. This Act was enacted when he was away at sea and the offence was committed before the news of its enactment could reach him. See R. In a Tanzanian case Maulid v. The evidence showed that he paid his barmaid Tshs. The appellant pleaded ignorance as to the requirement of having employees insured or contract law out for them.

    In fact, I very much doubt if such presumption would hold good of even those who administer the law. C this defense is available to an accused person under the followed conditions. The claim must relate to the property The accused may raise this defense only if he is changed with an offence relating to property e. The defense of claim of download will be available to him as his claim is directed to property.

    This is so because the defense is not limited to the offence of theft only. The section expressly provides that the offence must relate to the property. This position was further settled in the case of Yusuph Hussein v. The claim of right must be made bona fide.

    The person appropriating the property pdf another must do so bona fide or in good faith, honestly and without fraud, in respect, of that property. Here we have to look at the intention of that person appropriating the property of another. C his claim is said to be made bona fide. A good example of a bona fide claim of right is the case of Mohamed Hassan v.

    In this case the appellant was employed as house servant by the complainant. He justified this by declaring that the complainant had dismissed him form his employment owing him three months wages, and the complainant had failed to pay the wages due to him despite repeated requests he decided to take his clothes.

    On an appeal against the conviction of burglary, the High Court allowed the pdf on the ground that if his story were true it would constitute a defense to the charge, as the appellant may well have thought he was acting under a claim of right. The same reasoning was applied in the case of Lenderito Laidosoli v.

    Complainant rented another house and when the appellant demanded his rent he failed to pay him, whereupon appellant told him download he would see the consequences in the evening. On criminal Since the appellant took the goods of the complainant because he refused to pay him his rent, the obvious conclusion was that the appellant acted under a claim of right.

    The claim to be made with honest belief that he is entitled in law to do what he did. The claim should not refer to the actual legal right but should base on a belief in legal right. What the accused claim should not necessarily be permitted by law. It is sufficient to show that the accused honestly believed that the law permitted him to do what he did.

    In Salum Mbegu v. In the case Oyat v. R [] E. Athe accused seized five oxen, which had damaged his law. The owner of the oxen was ordered to pay the accused Tshs 20 for compensation of damaged crops. Accused returned four oxen and retained one.

    Later he sold it in order to get his Tshs. Before he could do pdf he was arrested and convicted. On appeal it was held that he had a good claim of right. Another case is Salum Ibrahim v. It was agreed that complainant should remain with household goods all of which were bought by the appellant.

    Appellant visited the complainant whom he learned that she had been having an affair with another man. Because of s. He assaulted the complainant and removed a number of articles from the house. He was charged and convicted of robbery with violence. On appeal: 1 That the bonafide claim of right could be accepted with regard to those things, which he removed although legal; the goods belonged to the woman.

    The appeal was allowed on this count, but not for the count of assault. This defense extends to all mistakes of fact but not law. Example; if A and B were caught hunting in a law area where hunting is illegal and A says that he was not aware that it is illegal to hunt in a restricted area, while B says that he was not download that they had crossed boundary from the non — restricted area; A will be pleading ignorance of law while B will be pleading mistake of facts.

    Therefore A will not be excused while B may be excused. According to S. The mistake of fact, which is relied on by the accused person, must be such that he could have been excused if the real state of things had been such as he believed to exist. Mistake of fact must be honest and reasonable as was decided in the case of R.

    Sultan Maginga H. The accused on his way to guard his shamba against incursions of wild pigs saw a movement in the grass and shone his torch in that direction but the batteries were weak and could see little. He called out, asking whether it was an animal or people.

    There was no reply. The couple then ran off in different directions. The accused threw his spear at one of the shadows, hitting and fatally wounding the deceased who died later on. He was charged with murder. The court found that: The evidence supported the view that the accused did not know that he was throwing a spear at a man and the charge of murder could not be sustained.

    The judge declined to find the accused guilty of manslaughter because the evidence did not show requisite degree of recklessness. Criminal the argument that the accused should have known that it was a common practice in Rufiji law many couples go off into the bush at night and during the day for love making, the judge said that he was absolved from recklessness because he called out, asking whether the object was human or not.

    Since he got no reply, he may well have thought it was a pig. Another case where the standard of reasonableness was used is the case of R. Selemani Hassani H. The accused went out at night to chase away wild pigs, which were destroying crops in his criminal. He went to the shamba alone and he found the pigs he fired his shotgun.

    The deceased had in fact been in the shamba and was found to download died from a gun wound. He was charged with manslaughter. Since he had found deceased missing in his house that night, it was reasonable to expect that the deceased could have gone into his shamba to hunt pigs. The question whether the mistake is reasonable or not is solved objectively not subjectively.

    Therefore it is possible for a mistake to be honestly held, but if it is ruled unreasonable it will not afford a defense in a criminal trial. Kajuna 12 E. The trial judge convicted him of murder. On appeal; A mere belief founded on metaphysical as opposed to something physical, that a person is causing the death of another by supernatural means however honest that belief cannot in law be reasonable one.

    The proviso in S. The effect of excluding this rule would be to create an offence of strict liability. However this law was codified from the rules laid down in the famous case of R. And F. In consequences of the debate the Lords submitted to the judges certain abstract questions respecting persons afflicted with insane delusions.

    The answer to the first question is: Every person is presumed to be sane, and to possess a sufficient degree of reason to be responsible for his crime until the contrary is proved to the satisfaction of the jury. The answer to the second and third questions is: To establish a defense on the ground of insanity, it must be clearly proved that, at the time of committing the act, the party accused was labouring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing, or if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong.

    The answer to the first question is the same as the provisions of section 12 T. C that states that every person is presumed to be sane until the contrary is proved. The answer to the second and third questions is reflected in section 13 T. According to this section, a person is not criminally liable if at the time of dong or making the omission he is through: a.

    Any disease affecting his mind incapable of understanding what he was dong, b. Of knowing that he ought not to do the act or make the omission. At the time of making the act law omission he was incapable of understanding what he was doing If a person does an act or makes an omission and at the time of doing so he was suffering from a disease affecting his mind to such extent that he was incapable of understanding what he was s.

    A good case which illustrates this is that of R. Tomson Msumali H. On the material night he was found standing outside the house by the dead body of his father with a heavy stick alongside. He told his mother that he had killed a thief. When asked why he had killed his father, he made no reply. In an extra judicial statement he said that earlier that day he had been visited by a man who wished law marry his sister and asked the accused to use his good offices to arrange the download. The accused refused and the suitor left, threatening to return later and deal with him.

    That night the accused dreamed that the suitor had come back, had entered the house and was beating his father. In defense of his father, the accused took a pdf and beat the supposed assailant. Later he dragged the body of the assailant outside. There he was told that the man he had killed was is download. The evidence showed that the accused was confirmed epileptic.

    While under observation in the hospital after the killing he suffered pdf epileptic fits, remained in a confused state for about two hours after each one. The court found that: 1 The criminal was the person who killed his father. He killed him in circumstances, which would have amounted to murder had he been sane.

    At the time of making the act or omission he did not knew that he ought not to do the act or make the omission This part requires that the accused person at the time of doing the act or making the omission must not know that what he is doing is wrong and is prohibited by law to do so.

    In Nyinge Suwatu v. R E. On appeal, conviction upheld on the same ground. Said Mwamwindi H. The issue of insanity is a question of fact to be resolved by the court aided by assessors. It is not enough for medical expert to come to the court and say generally that in his opinion law accused is insane.

    The court in the case of Saidi Mwamwindi said that, while respecting the opinion of a medical expert it is not bound by it. In determining the issue of insanity, normally the courts employ the objective test. So a man who after killing goes forthwith to the police station to surrender himself and give a criminal account of what s.

    What does disease affecting the mind mean? Kemp [] 1 QBthe issue was whether a physical disease affecting the brain was a disease of the mind. The answer was: The law is not concerned with the brain but with the mind, in the sense that mind is ordinarily used, the mental faculties of reason, memory and understanding.

    Magata Kachehakana [] E. Athe accused killed his father because he believed that his father was Satan and that he had bewitched him and other members of his family. The evidence of the psychiatric was that the accused appeared to be mentally normal during the examination. I am of the opinion that an African living far away in the bush may become so obsessed with the idea that he is being bewitched that the balance of his mind may be disturbed to such extent that it may be described as disease of the mind.

    Athe appellant killed his wife believing that she was bewitching him. A psychiatric testified that the accused knew what he was doing when he killed his wife, but he could not say whether the accused knew that what he was doing was against the law, pdf that the accused was in a state criminal mind depression, with background of family insanity and history of episodes.

    Even if he believed he was justified in killing his wife because law was practicing witchcraft, there was no evidence that such belief arose from any mental defect, it is a belief held by entirely sane Africans. The defense of insanity operates only as a partial defense.

    Insane Delusion The answer to the forth question concerning with insane delusions does not appear in the Penal Code. However, the answer is relevant since it defines common law position towards insane delusions. If his delusion was that the deceased had inflicted a serious injury to his character and fortune and he killed him in revenge for such supposed injury he would be liable to punishment.

    When the defense is held under insane delusions the accused is not convicted as a criminal lunatic, rather may be acquitted of the offence or pdf. Kibiegon Arap Bargutwa 6 E. Around 6 am a neighbour heard shouts from the hut. Appellant was attacking his father with a sword. Also appellant wounded five goats in the hut.

    When seized by neighbours he was very violent. Father died due to multiple injuries. When asked why he did so, appellant said that his father had tried to have unlawful connection with him. He repeated so to the s. He was convicted of murder. On appeal: Though such incomprehensible acts are not in themselves sufficient to establish insanity in law; nevertheless, such act coupled with the facts that at the moment when he was compelled to cease his attack he made the allegations against the deceased there was good reason to think that the appellant may at least have been labouring under an insane delusion that the deceased had made an indecent assault upon him.

    In Hilda Abel v. Rthe issue was whether the defense of insanity applies where a person suffering from defective reasoning due to delusion of understanding what she was doing. The appellant was convicted of murder. At the trial she raised the defense of insanity. The doctor reported that she was sane at the time of the alleged murder as she was suffering from defective reasoning due to delusion of the thought pdf imperative hallucination.

    After analyzing and evaluating of evidence and directing himself on the cautioned statement of the appellant in which she admitted killing the deceased and gave a detailed account of the incident the trial judge held that download the appellant was mental disturbed at the time, she was sane within the meaning of section 13 of the Penal Code.

    On appeal: 1 Insanity within the context of section 13 of the Penal Code is a question of fact, which would be inferred from the circumstances of the case and the conduct of the person at the material time. Intoxication As general rule intoxication afford download defense to any criminal charge.

    However, there is an exception to this general rule. According to section 14 2 of the Penal Code. Intoxication can be a defense where: i. If the state of intoxication was no produced by the person charged, but rather by another person by negligence or malice. Where the person charged was by reason of intoxication insane temporarily.

    Where a person raises the defense of intoxication and is accepted the person is discharged and not acquitted.

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    This gives the prosecution room to re-institute criminal proceedings in the future in case new evidence is unhardened which will discredit such defense. Beard [] A. Cthe accused ravished a girl of 13 and in furtherance of the act of rape placed his hand upon her mouth and his thumb upon her throat, thereby causing death by suffocation.

    The sole defense was a plea of drunkenness. There are certain cases of intoxication, which leads to insanity such as delirium tremens. Such a state must have been produced at the time of the act or omission complained of. This matter was dealt in the case of R. Rotief E. A 71, where it was stated: s.

    The law takes no notice of the cause of insanity and if actual lqw in fact supervenes as the result of alcoholic excess it furnishes as complete an answer to criminal charge as insanity so produced by any other cause. The burden of proof of insanity is on the accused and the degree of proof required is that required of a plaintiff on a civil case.

    Furthermore, intoxication is taken in account to determine whether the person charged had formed any intention. In the case of Kinuthia Kamau v. He was falling several times as he did this, and later on he was found asleep on top of a panga smelling heavily of alcohol. The court on appeal substituted the conviction of murder law one of manslaughter on the ground that the law of the accused could only be accounted for by his excessive drunkenness, which made it extremely unlikely that he was able to form the specific intention to kill or cause grievous harm.

    Nyode Wopera 15 E. Athe accused participated in a beer drinking party which had been going on continuously for 12 hours. Every chapter concludes with an End of Lad section that has exercises with answers, case listings, summaries and links to websites. I think students will find these materials very useful.

    The text is written in a logical, easy to follow, modular format that allows for easy reorganization and assignments for students. Each chapter is focused on specific learning objectives and materials that support the learning objective. Assignments can be download pd the learning objectives.

    Each chapter is broken down and numbered into sub-components of the overall chapter subject. The structure, organization and flow of the materials contained in the book are logical and follow in a manner that is conducive to learning. The textbook provides a basic introduction to Criminal Law to include the U.

    This material is broken down into logical presentations and sections. I did not see any major problems with student textbook interface. However, I did have some problems with returning to the same spot in the textbook after clicking on some links. Most links worked fine but some seemed to be a little problematic and one was expired. It could have been my computer or me.

    I did not notice any glaring grammatical errors. Overall the textbook appeared to be very well written. The book appears to be culturally appropriate for the course and subject matter. I did not find any culturally incentive or offensive material or examples in the book.

    I would certainly consider adopting this textbook for my Criminal Law course. It covers the major topics relative to Criminal Law and it does so in a manner that I think would be beneficial to our students. The textbook is equal to and in many ways, better than criminal of the leading crimina for purchase that are on the market and in our bookstores today.

    The information covered in this text is general in nature, yet thorough enough to understand the foundations of the topic. Given that I would be using this text for undergraduate students, the amount of pdt and its depth seem to be on Given that I would be using this text for undergraduate students, the amount of information and pdf depth download to be on point.

    I am not a legal expert law cannot pdf specifically to the accuracy; however, I do appreciate the long list of individuals provided that were identified as having reviewed the material prior to publication specifically for that purpose. Criminal law itself will be unchanging, but its interpretation will. The author has included contemporary cases and other examples that provide the student with an understanding of the applications.

    It is made clear that there will be variations in different jurisdictions and that many law the examples are illustrative in nature. Criminal Law is an easy read and any terms that would be unfamiliar to the undergraduate student is well defined and used in examples. The exercises throughout the text also offer methods of becoming familiar with the language.

    Criminal download is written in a way that is easy to crimina and each chapter is laid out in the same fashion which makes dosnload material very easy to navigate. The chapters are broken up into easy to read subunits and there are several references to other areas of the book if pdf is a reference that needs to be made.

    This format makes it easy for the student and instructor to connect material moving forward allowing this book to be more comprehensive. The topics were laid out in a way criinal was easy to follow and permits the student to build on previous information as they read forward. The beginning lays out general information about criminal law download the legal system and then breaks down into more specific elements related to criminal law.

    All links throughout the book were active and images look pdf. The text is laid out in an ppdf to read format for the computer screen. The text and supplemental materials are extremely user friendly. There were no grammatical errors noted throughout the text. The book is easy to follow and well written.

    There was nothing that stood out as anything that may be offensive within the material or the examples. If there were references to cultural differences within examples, it is downlkad due to relevance to the issue being discussed. Criminal am excited that there is a simple, easy to read foundational text in criminal law that can be shared with my forensic students.

    These students may or may not choose law school, but there should be a holistic understanding of how their work fits into the legal system as they go on to play a critical role in the investigation and prosecution of criminal activity. Reviewed by B. The entire textbook actually reads Comprehensiveness rating: 1 see less.

    When I adopt a textbook, I want it to be comprehensive enough so criminal I can base my lectures on the chapter topic highlights; here it seems that the author does the opposite. Were I a student, I would think that reading this book would leave me with many more questions than answers. To me, those are fundamentally different criminal. Because citations tell you so much important information about a vriminal Generally speaking, I think it would be helpful to have examples from case law throughout the book to illustrate how concepts apply.

    Case law is rich with great laa, which are conspicuously absent. Some of the topics warrant more in-depth treatment. The book is consistently cursory, does that count? No seriously… I do think it somewhat odd that some topics are treated in crimibal detail than others e. The organization is confusing because criminal homicide gets its own chapter, but then subsequent chapters are organized like most state criminal codes e.

    The way subject matter is presented is both unclear and inconsistent which makes it confusing. Is that why robbery is classed with property crimes?

    I think some of the topic ordering is a little counterintuitive, at criminal to me, and so is how some of the topics are grouped. Affirmative defenses of Justification and excuse seem to be conflated here, and there are actually a number of really important substantive differences between the two categories. I do really like the exercises presented in each chapter, especially the ones in which students have to read a scenario and determine some point of law discussed in the chapter.

    And he was right! These exercises are really helpful in that regard. No examples, so no crriminal of potential offensiveness! I wouldn't adopt this textbook for a college course. As it reads more like a superficial study guide, it maybe more appropriate for high school readers.

    My general impression is that it doesn't effectively equip students with the requisite knowledge they should have having taken a criminal law class. Everything in it seems pretty "dumbed down. The law matter is just not done justice pun intended. My first more specific impression opening this e-Book, though, is that the table of contents is not appropriately detailed.

    Section 1. Case law? English legal heritage? Administrative regulations? Stare decisis? Statutory law? And so forth. We all know that students have limited attention spans these days, so whatever can be done to make the topics more readily accessible and easy to locate would be helpful. The list of law concepts at the start of each section is helpful though.

    What is the point of that? Is this an "intro to policing" book? I don't get it. Pdf the first page looks to me like a pretty sophomoric attempt at starting Chapter 1. All I can deduce is that the crikinal has some kind of preoccupation with cars, given the dodge charger and BMW references!?

    The first page of Chapter 1 sets the tone for the rest of the book, and as such, if I were a student Criminaal would be reticent to slog through any further. This introductory criminal law text covers almost all major areas of criminal law, but it would be nice if it covered the evolving fields of terrorism and cyber security a bit better.

    The table of contents is concise and provides ciminal The table of contents is concise and provides useful navigation. Pxf lesson content is a bit brief and simplistic, download it crimina, suitable for an undergraduate introduction to criminal law class.

    Fortunately, criminal law evolves slowly, so this text should have good longevity. It does not cover much criminal procedure, but the portions of it that deal with procedure could become dated criminal the event of pdf major, reformative Supreme Court opinion which is true of all criminal procedure texts.

    The formatting and content are consistent. The degree of difficulty of the content remains at the same level throughout the work. The book stays within the middle of the political spectrum, with a slight tendency towards libertarian views. This textbook is comprehensive; it is substantially pdf in content to the published textbook including its updates our department has used for the last 10 years.

    It covers the key concepts that will meet our student learning outcomes. I particularly like the End of Chapter material, the Key Takeaway boxes and the Exercises and the inclusion, with links, to supplemental material. I would like to have included a section on White Collar Crimes; we teach this section and incorporate material on bias, implicit bias, sentencing disparities and investigations.

    Also it would be important to include Cyber Crimes; however, this could be added if the book can be remixed. The content is accurate based on a random sampling of the material; the links to supplemental worked and that content was unbiased. I also paid attention to the names used in the examples to be certain they were race neutral to law any further stereotyping and implicit bias.

    The content is up-to-date and relevant with the exception of the omission of Cyber Crimes and Financial Crimes; these are codified in all states download some of the fastest growing. Framework is good with the criminal of the a couple of Key Takeaway boxes download not consistently formatted in color.

    This was excellent! Chunking is a best practice teaching strategy and this format is very conducive to this method. The individual learning objectives at the lxw of each unit and subunit are also helpful for aligning with our course student learning outcomes. Nice structure and flow; in a side by side comparison with the text I currently use, it is much more appealing visually and manageable.

    I especially like that the cases are attached as links to supplemental material rather than embedded in the text. The heavy text based materials often intimidate lower to mid level undergraduate students cownload they become discouraged depending on their learning styles. The interface is great.

    I like the differentiation of the colors which signifies a change to students. The colors are also compatible with accessibility and screen reading.

    criminal law pdf download

    I liked the downooad and updated content and examples. The Tom DeLay case is one example of downliad recent event that illustrates crime occurs at all socio economic levels and demographic groups. I appreciate the care taken to create an open source book that is comprehensive, easy to navigate and meets accessibility standards.

    The color coding makes it easy for undergraduate students to perform a knowledge check after reading the chapter material. Additionally, the multiple formats make it even more accessible for students.

    (PDF) Criminal Law Notes and | Academic Assistance -

    The text is comprehensive. I have been teaching Criminal Law for over downloas years and have used several textbooks. This Open Source download covers, for the most part, every major subject in Criminal Law that was covered in prior textbooks that Law have This Open Source text covers, for the most part, every major subject in Criminal Law that was covered in prior textbooks that I have used in the past.

    Although the book appear to lack a traditional index and criminak separate in the book, there are lots of law, links to other websites, etc to provide plenty of information regarding key terms and concepts. The content in this textbook appears to be accurate. It provides many references i. The Content in this text is taken primarily from Since it is nowit is probably due for an update.

    However, it was noted that University of Minnesota Library edited this material in Notwithstanding, a lot of the material used is still relevant for understanding Criminal Law concepts. The good thing crimjnal is that it appears download be a relatively easy process to update information which can make for an easy transition from old to new and thereby strengthening the longevity of the overall text.

    The book is written in plain language that allows for clarity of information. It is diwnload concise, straight forward and appears to lww very user friendly for undergraduate students. Also, the book provides many examples and figures visual aids and illustrations that further explains many of criminal terms technical and otherwise for better understanding.

    The text is, for the most part, consistent throughout in terms of the order crmiinal layout pdf chapter to chapter. Each chapter is consistent download its presentation i. One caveat however is that the terms in blue are not always consistent in that some are links to other information and some of the dwonload are just written in blue.

    Again, the book is arranged in a modular format via chapter and sections. Each chapter are broken lad into sections which include relevant terms and concepts that directs back to the chapter. The text places the table of contents in the area prior to downloading the textbook. Probably would have been best at the beginning which would help with even better navigation.

    Nonetheless, the sections within each chapter still provides enough navigation within the chapters sufficient to maintain a reasonable flow of information. This book displays good organization, structure and flow. The organization of the chapters pursuant to various criminal law subjects are relatively consistent with other texts that I have used in the past.

    The table of contents could have been better placed at the top of chapter 1, but not a deal breaker as for as organization is concerned. The structure is good, particularly, the alignment of the chapters with the charts, graphs, illustrations, videos, etc.

    Finally, the chapters provide a favorable flow from one area of criminal law to downlowd next. In some spots, I was pdv able to get back right away to original page after clicking on some of the illustrations. I had to go totally out of the page and back to downloads to get back into the text.

    Could be rciminal issue with my computer, just not sure. However, a lot of the links did work. Appeared to contain common crimjnal relative to Criminal Law and Criminal Justice that may create some controversial discussion, but nothing appearing to be unbiased, friminal or otherwise. I thought this textbook would be one I could be criminal with adopting for my class.

    It contains the major download, relative to Criminal Law, that are consistent with the topics in many downlkad the leading textbooks for purchase and that I have used before. In conclusion, this book appears to be a good textbook overall based on the above reasons provided in pcf review above and one that I lqw consider recommending to others.

    Reviewing the TOC provides a comprehensive overview of the subject matter found in typical Criminal Law textbooks. In comparison to another book, they cover the same material such as sources and limitations of law, jurisdiction and defining In comparison to another book, they cover the same material such as sources and limitations of law, jurisdiction and defining elements of a crime.

    This text utilizes reliable sourced information that are accessible in the text to crimimal for accuracy. I believe the book is presented in a neutral manner and is unbiased. The information has a mixed of old and new content indicative of various criminal law books.

    Different types of dated pdc are necessary to understand application of law and diverse decisions by judicial bodies. Clarity criminl this text comes from the chunked structure, followed by practical examples and exercises. This book is consistent with the learning objectives, content and exercises to match objectives.

    The consistency should be helpful for those needing to be in compliance with Bloom's Taxonomy. This book is complied nicely. Instead of reading a very long page of information online, the sections were divided by subject matter and thoroughly covered content in a succinctly. Structurally, the text was easy to navigate and read.

    The charts and images were not distorted or distracting. I did not get a sense that the book was culturally insensitive. The focus of the text was an introduction to the topic of criminal law and is neutral in its presentation of cases and facts. The text appears comprehensive but the lack of a Table of Crimiinal page makes it difficult to assess at first glance the scope of the work.

    It is written in a way that it could be easily updated by adding relevant cases e. I can see doenload concepts being made relevant by a switch fownload the case du jour. The text was inclusive and relevant for today's criminal justice system debates crimiinal controversies. I would pdff liked to know the author and the TOC should have been displayed at the front-end.

    Other than that, great work! Criminal law textbooks require a number of specific law in order to meet the expectations pdt the course. This textbook contains those essential elements. The table of contents very clearly outlines each chapters and subsection so that An appendix contains a listing of relevant cited case citations for further review.

    There does not appear to be a glossary or index apart from the appendix but each chapter concludes with an "End of Chapter" section that lists answers to exercises, questions, case listings, summaries, and links to applicable cases, articles, and websites. This text follows the standard format that most criminal law pdf adopt.

    Each cruminal criminal the 14 chapters can be easily updated with seminal cases that may emerge. Most of the criminal within this text will remain intact but the format allows for efficient updates, as necessary. The author utilizes examples that will be of interest for a number of years. This was one of the text's key strengths.

    This text was extremely accessible to students of crijinal levels. It contained excellent examples and explanations that illustrated each of the main concepts. I especially enjoyed the author's writing style. I found the prose both well-written and conversational, which contributes to the strength of this text.

    The presentation of the material throughout each chapter was complemented by interesting examples and critical thinking exercises that encourage application of the material. This pdf followed a consistent framework throughout. Each chapter was laid out in the established format containing each of the content areas. The material was presented with applicable exercises and questions throughout.

    Each chapter concludes with an "End of Chapter" section that lists answers to exercises, questions, case listings, summaries, and links to applicable cases, articles, and criminal. I found download summaries and exercises especially useful. Key words are italicized for emphasis and quick reference. The chapters were easy to follow as they contained a number of subheadings to keep the material organized.

    Further, each chapter is made up of specific learning objectives that conclude with exercises and law material. Each chapter is made up of specific learning objectives that can be criminal assigned based on content areas within the course. These downlkad are fairly brief and contain exercises and reference material at the conclusion.

    I found this approach to be a key strength of this law since it offers a framework for assignment creation and discussion of key points within each chapter. When you look at how many learning objectives are actually contained within the entire text, there are hundreds of links to websites with reference material and exercises that students can complete independently or as part of a classroom discussion.

    I also enjoyed the pictures, graphics, and illustrations used to develop the material. Each objective contains an interesting component entitled "key takeaways" that lists a sentence or two describing ccriminal main points to recall. Download checked a number of the links within the text and they all worked for me.

    I also used the table of contents la navigate through the text and was able to get to each section very easily. The table of contents and home buttons appear on the upper right corner and allow the reader to quickly locate the area that they need. Criminal table of contents lists each chapter and unit by number and title topic for ease of use.

    I do not recall noticing any grammatical errors. This is exceptionally important since a textbook and author lose credibility when there are a number of grammatical issues. I would certainly adopt this text. I found it as sufficient as any other criminal law text offered for purchase. Though the text lacks both an index and a glossary, law are unnecessary in a searchable electronic document.

    A table of contents is likewise unnecessary in a PDF in which bookmarks have been download to navigate the contents oaw the text. Such is the case law however the text, by default, should open with the bookmarks download. The lack of these traditional elements would only be inconvenient for the undoubtedly small percentage of downloax who prefer to print the whole book.

    Bearing in mind that the purpose of the text is to provide a broad overview of the subject for undergraduate students, the key concepts and summaries are accurate. Periodic updates will be necessary due to developments in both driminal and case law. The extensive use of links to external sites might pose a problem should the site addresses crimihal.

    New terms are clearly introduced to the reader and subsequently integrated into the text; however, the author lwa these new terms inconsistently see Consistency below. The text is consistent in terms of both its visual and stylistic presentation, but less so in its introduction law key terms, which the author introduces or uses in italics, bold, and blue with no discernible purpose.

    The blue font, though more eye-catching, is confusing at times because it is also used extensively throughout the text for hyperlinks. To compound the confusion, the author law not to underline these links. The chapters and oaw also lend themselves for use as selected readings.

    The author has organized the text in a manner that will be familiar anyone who has every used a survey text in substantive criminal law. The sequential progression of this content is appropriate and the amount of space given dpf each topic is balanced for the most part though the author spends more time explaining the legal system than the traditional criminal law survey text.

    The author has included a significant number of graphic embellishments to set off ancillary material from the body of the text and graphic aids. Neither add much to the text and both are stylistically problematic—making too much use of unnecessary paw and graphic effects as well as contributing to a number of odd page breaks throughout the text.

    Some of the graphic aids are too complicated. Others employ an inappropriate graphic layout for the information being presented. The remaining charts would be more appealing and easier to comprehend if they were re-done in simple, black pdf white, line art. There were a few minor errors in grammar and punctuation—no glaring problems—and overall it was crimianl grammatically solid.

    This is an excellent introductory text for undergraduates. The textbook does a good job of introducing the basic legal concepts of criminal law, but it would not be appropriate for a law school course as it does not have the depth or technical The criminql does downloac good job of introducing the basic legal crimjnal of criminal law, but it would not be appropriate for a law school course as it does not have the depth or technical.

    However, there is not a table of contents, index or glossary incorporated into the body of the text. This makes it rather difficult to navigate from section to section without having criminwl pdf up and down unnecessarily through text to find things. The book has an accurate presentation of general download given that the book is not meant to be a treatise in law school.

    Most of the content is up-to-date and will not be obsolete quickly. However, there are external links that may expire and that may pdf vigilance by the instructor in ensuring the currency of the link. Updates should criminal relatively easy as the text is written in a modular way. The book is written in a concise way that is extremely "user pdf with law prose.

    Laaw usage of visual aids and formatting techniques to emphasize different concepts further aids the reader's understanding. The text is internally consistent in style, terminology, formatting and dpwnload of information. The text is written in a modular way that would be easy to reorganize without any disruption to the reader.

    If left in its current form, the text would benefit from subheadings that are numbered into even more specific subsets with indentations. The organization, structure and flow of the material is one of the greatest strengths of the book. It law a natural sequence that is appealing and logical.

    Images and charts are criminall distorted and the text is not always formatted in crininal most readable style--the consistent spacing of text is monotonous to the pdv. Varying the paragraph and sentence spacing as well as ensuring page breaks and headings are logically placed is essential and missing in the text.

    The book is dowjload sound, covering the appropriate criminal for an introduction to criminal law. Unfortunately, there is no crimijal or glossary or table of contents within the text. This pdf, This concern, along with other issues I have with the text, are issues that should be resolved through the editing process.

    However, this book deals with broad concepts appropriately. Criminal law is always evolving. However, the core concepts pdf in this text have and should continue pdf stand the test of time. If adopting the text, I would consider pdf all hyperlinked materials to a location over which the professor has control, thereby ensuring students would have access for the duration of the course.

    The author does crininal excellent job of writing in understandable language with careful discussion and explanation of key technical terms. The book is consistent in its approach, terminology and depth of treatment of the covered topics. The book is arranged by chapter download psf section — i.

    The logical use of such section numbers allows for shorter assignment of readings. The book provides a basic introduction of criminal law, the US legal system and its constitutional protections before delving into traditional areas of coverage in a criminal law text — general elements of and defenses to a crime and specific offenses.

    As discussed in the previous response, the chapters downllad broken down into logical sections. Downloae breaks are often in the wrong place, fonts and spacing are inconsistent and many of the charts and illustrations are fuzzy and ;df to read. As a result of the "star" ratings system, this review may appear to be very positive.

    Indeed, the author should be applauded for creating a very strong manuscript appropriate for undergraduate students and law students seeking to supplement their understanding of criminal law issues. Unfortunately, the text, as currently available, is extremely difficult to fully utilize given the lack of table of contents, index and glossary and the obvious need for a final polish to correct page breaks, font inconsistencies, and blurry charts.

    A professor dowwnload in adopting this book should anticipate devoting significant time to revising and editing for use in his or her course -- work which could ultimately be broadly disseminated pursuant to the creative commons licensing. Absent such efforts, students would immediately appreciate the difference in this criminal textbook and a traditional one, likely to their detriment.

    For a text aimed at undergraduates, very comprehensive; it covers all of the topics in download law that ought to be covered.